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Milwaukee’s Freeway Plan and Freeway Revolt

15 Seconds that Changed San Francisco

Lessons from San Francisco

Planetizen – Removing Urban Freeways

University Hill Study

Sean Kirst’s Blog

Oklahoma City Core to Shore Plan

Marquette Interchange Project, Milwaukee, WI

Congress for the New Urbanism Highways to Boulevards Initiative


The Next Slum?
by Christopher B. Leinberger

Some experts expect conventional suburbs to continue to sprawl ever outward. Yet today, American metropolitan residential patterns and cultural preferences are mirror opposites of those in the 1940s. Most Americans now live in single-family suburban houses that are segregated from work, shopping, and entertainment; but it is urban life, almost exclusively, that is culturally associated with excitement, freedom, and diverse daily life. And as in the 1940s, the real-estate market has begun to react.

Suburbs a Mile Too Far for Some
by Jonathan Karp

http://online.wsj.com/public/article_print/SB 121366811790479767.html
Nationally, the mortgage crisis and gasoline prices are accelerating the demand for close-in living among millennials (20-somethings) and baby boomers. In this Wall Street Journal article, Christopher Leinberger, a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution, describes the structural shift as the “beginning of the end of sprawl.”

Urban Renewal, the 15th Ward, the Empire Stateway and the City of Syracuse, New York
by Aaron C. Knight, May 2007

Urban renewal programs of the 1950s through 1970s, coupled with the connection of older cities to the federal Interstate Highway system during the same time, dramatically changed the look of those cities. Syracuse, New York, is a perfect example city from which we can examine the impact – good and bad – of these developments and the effects they had.

City Curbs on Cars:  Now Accelerating
by Neal Peirce
For close to a century, the automobile has so boldly seized Americans’ imagination — sparking the economy, paving the continent, designing our neighborhoods — that even the thought of curbing its dominion seems unnatural.
But check what’s happening right now…. [more]

Shifting Urban Priorities?
Removal of Inner City Freeways in the United States
by Francesca Napolitano and P. Christopher Zegras

This analysis suggests that freeway removal will take place only when (a) the freeway’s condition raises concerns about its integrity and safety; (b) a window of opportunity exists, some event that enables a freeway removal alternative to gain serious consideration; (c) the value of mobility is lower than other objectives such as economic development; and (d) those in power value other benefits more than they value the benefits associated with freeway infrastructure.
A working paper version of the published journal article can be found at:


The Current Problems of Interstate 81 through Downtown of Syracuse and Their Effective Solutions
by Baik, Galster, Jeong, and Seokgi
Maxwell Graduate Student Project, 12/11/07
The students define options for I-81 then assess the alternatives based on various criteria.

Stent (or Dagger?) in the Heart of Town: Urban Freeways in Syracuse, 1944–1967
Joseph F. C. DiMento, University of Californiahttp://jph.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/8/2/133
This case study assesses the decision-making process for I-81 and I-690, and the importance of  “the convergence … of the city planning goals of ‘slum clearance’ and redevelopment (later, urban renewal), on the one hand, and the transportation goals of eliminating congestion and improving vehicle mobility, on the other. Also important was the availability of nonlocal funding to a fiscally conservative city administration, one that was also deferential, often legally obligated to be, to state highway planning directions.”

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Rethinking I-81